Carbon dating inaccurate
Dates above and below a location provide minimum and maximum age determinations according to the law of superimposition.
Thermoluminescence is a similar technique to optical dating, but uses heat instead of light to stimulate the minerals.
Deepening the apparent mystery of total volcanogenic CO emission and fossil fuel consumption that are, to date, unquantified.
Furthermore, the discovery of a surprising number of submarine volcanoes highlights the underestimation of global volcanism and provides a loose basis for an estimate that may partly explain ocean acidification and rising atmospheric carbon dioxide levels observed last century, as well as shedding much needed light on intensified polar spring melts.
Based on this brief literature survey, we may conclude that volcanic CO is exclusively anthropogenic.
If we neglect to ask how the greenhouse effect of various gases is quantified in terms of real, measurable thermodynamic properties, the idea of anthropogenic global warming may well survive long enough for us to ask how the carbon budget establishes that observed increases in CO is one of the lightest volatiles (materials of relatively low melting point), found in the mantle (Wilson, 1989).
These grains absorb radiation over time from the surrounding sediments and the radiation (electrons) remain trapped within the mineral grain structure.
When organisms die, the carbon-14 begins to decay at a known rate.
Carbon-14 has a half-life of 5,730 years so dating is limited to between a few hundred and about 50,000 years. It is also important that samples for dating are collected carefully to ensure they have not been contaminated with more recent carbon.
Radiocarbon analysis can only be used on organic materials, and is often used to date charcoal associated with campfires and archaeological deposits.
The fluid nature of the aesthenosphere, or upper mantle of the earth, ensures that lighter volatiles are fractionated, buoyed towards the surface, and either extruded or outgassed into the atmosphere via volcanoes and faults.
The "solid earth", a term popular amongst climatologists, is a deceptive misnomer as the aesthenosphere is a deeply convecting fluid upon which flexible sheets of crust (i.e. This deeply convecting fluid tears these delicate plates apart at rift zones and crushes them together like the bonnet of a wrecked car at convergence zones.